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: « . 4. : THE COURT SYSTEM OF THE USA»



1. . .

litigation - lower court- district court - court of appeal -

sue or be sued - The Supreme Court - tier- judge -

to resolve - , to depend(on/upon) - to review -

2. . . .

The American court system is complex. It functions as part of the federal system of government. Each state runs its own court system, and no two are identical. In addition, we have a system of courts for the national government. These federal courts coexist with the state courts.

Individuals fall under the jurisdiction of two different court systems, their state courts and federal courts. They can sue or be sued in either system, depending mostly on what their case is about. The vast majority of cases are resolved in the state courts.

The federal courts are organized in three tiers, like a pyramid. The bottom of the pyramid are the US district courts, where litigation begins. In the middle are the US courts of appeals. At the top is the US Supreme Court. To appeal means to take a case to a higher court. The courts of appeals and the Supreme Court are appellate courts, with few exceptions; they review cases that have been decided in lower courts. Most federal courts hear and decide a wide array of cases; the judges in these courts are known as generalists.

3. . .

; ; ; - ; ; ; ; ; ; .

4. , . .

1. Why is the American court system considered to be complex?

2. Name American courts in the descending order.

3. In what way are the federal courts organized?

4. Where does litigation begin?

5. What does the word "to appeal" mean?

: « . 4. : THE COURT SYSTEM OF THE USA»
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